Jewish Family and Children’s Services, San Francisco, CA – April 8, 2021 Yom HaShoah via video

by George J Elbaum
My very first talk was on Yom HaShoah 11 years ago, April 10, 2010, organized by MIT Hillel at the Boston Holocaust Memorial. It was a painful experience, but immediately afterwards I was encouraged by the audience to “Keep doing this! Keep speaking so that your story is not forgotten.”, and today, 11 years later, this is my 293rd talk. It was organized by Penny Savryn, Education & Marketing Manager of the JFCS Holocaust Center with assistance from Shayna Dollinger and Aliza Mayer, both Pell University Fellows at the JFCS Holocaust Center, as part of the Center’s Yom HaShoah Days of Commemoration (see program below). The audience of this Zoom presentation included over 200 community participants from the Bay Area, New York, Canada, Oregon, Marbury Middle School in Alabama, as well as all of the middle-schoolers from Brandeis School of San Francisco.

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California High School, San Ramon, CA – March 29 & 30, 2021 (2 groups) via video

by George J Elbaum

California High School (CalHigh), San Ramon, CA, has an enrollment of 2777 students in grades 9 thru 12 and a truly excellent academic record: while attaining a 4-year graduation rate of 99% vs. state average of 85%, it did so while receiving Great Schools ratings of 10 for college readiness and 9 for test scores.  Its ACT college readiness rate is 88% vs. 55% state average, reflecting student proficiency of 77% in English vs. 55% state average and 61% in math vs. 40% state average – an enviable record of both, high student quantity and high quality.  Its demographics are White 44%,  Asian 31%, Hispanic 12%, two or more races 7%,  Filipino 4%. and Black 2%.  Such performance has been maintained over many years, such that CalHigh was ranked No. 250 in the top 500 US high schools by Newsweek in 2011, placing it within the top 1.5% of the over 18,000 high schools in the United States.

My 2 presentations (March 29 and March 30) were to approximately 140 10th grade students (and some of their family members) who have been studying World History between the two World Wars.  The students’ preparations included reading Art Spiegelman’s  Maus, watching The Lady in Number 6, and analyzing art of David Olere, a Polish-born French painter best known for his explicit drawings and paintings based on his experiences as a Jewish Sonderkommando inmate at Auschwitz.  This unusual use of Holocaust art is described by CalHigh teacher Regina Lyon as follows: ‘We always look at art in conjunction with literature in the course, and in this unit we talk about different ways of processing grief and trauma, and Olere’s art is our jumping off point for that conversation.”  This Holocaust unit is followed by one which addresses the question: “How can we empower ourselves and others to make positive social change”

The 2 events were organized by Regina Lyon and Hannah Cheng, who teach Global Studies English & History, and supported by Tucker Farrar, and the Cal High PTSA and Academic Boosters.  My participation and other arrangements were organized by Penny Savryn, Education & Marketing Manager of the JFCS Holocaust Center

1st group – March 29, 2021
2nd group – March 30, 2021
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The Bay School, San Francisco, CA – March 25, 2021 PM via video

by George J Elbaum

Founded in 2004, The Bay School (Bay) is an independent, coeducational college preparatory high school in the Presidio of San Francisco.  With almost 400 students in grades 9 through 12, Bay balances challenging academics and innovative thinking with a mindful approach to learning and life – its goal is to see students unlock their individual and collective potential so they begin to realize their roles in a dynamic world.   Bay believes that a broad range of perspectives and experiences play a crucial role in achieving its educational mission, thus it intentionally recruits students and teachers from diverse cultural, racial, economic and geographic backgrounds.

Emphasizing depth of content, Bay’s curriculum focuses on problem solving, promotes critical thinking and encourages students to connect academic study with their extracurricular lives. Bay’s 9th and 10th grade courses build a broad foundation of basic skills, focusing on the relationships among traditional academic disciplines. Students’ interests and talents increasingly drive the academic program in 11th and 12th grade.

This was my 4th visit (albeit virtual due to Covid-19) to The Bay School, and it was again organized by Humanities teacher Hannah Wagner.  The online audience was approximately 90-100 students in 10th-grade Humanities class who have recently studied the aftermath of WWI, the Treaty of Versailles, and Hitler’s rise to power in the 1930s.  Shortly after my talk all 10th graders will read Viktor Frankl’s Man’s Search for Meaning. Finally, all students will undertake a WWII research project, some of which will involve learning about the Holocaust in depth through primary source analysis.  

My talk was arranged by Penny Savryn, Education & Marketing Manager, JFCS Holocaust Center.

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Institute for Holocaust Education, Omaha, NE – Week of Understanding, Fremont High School – March 25, 2021 AM via video

by George J Elbaum 

The Institute for Holocaust Education (IHE) of Omaha, NE, was established in 2001 with the mission to provide educational resources, workshops, survivor testimony, and integrated arts programming to middle and high school students. IHE’s annual Week of Understanding is in its 11th year and brings testimony of Holocaust survivors to over 7,000 students in Nebraska and Iowa each year. This year there are 6 survivor speakers and 27 schools participating.  Two of these schools to whose students I spoke are St. Mary’s Catholic School of Omaha on March 24 and Fremont High School of Fremont, NE, on March 25.

Fremont High School is located in Fremont, NE, a 30-minute drive west of Omaha, and has an enrollment of approximately 2,000 students in grades 9 thru 12.  This is the first year Fremont has participated in the Week of Understanding, facilitated by using Zoom, and I spoke to their entire student body and many of the staff. Fremont’s participation was organized by Ashley Bignell, English Teacher and Multicultural Club Sponsor.

My participation in Week of Understanding was arranged by Scott Littky, IHE’s Executive Director, and assisted by Kael Sagheer, IHE’s Education Coordinator.

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Institute for Holocaust Education, Omaha, NE – Week of Understanding, St. Mary’s Catholic School – March 24, 2021 via video

by George J Elbaum

The Institute for Holocaust Education (IHE) of Omaha, NE, was established in 2001 with the mission to provide educational resources, workshops, survivor testimony, and integrated arts programming to middle and high school students. IHE’s annual Week of Understanding is in its 11th year and brings testimony of Holocaust survivors to over 7,000 students in Nebraska and Iowa each year. This year there are 6 survivor speakers and 27 schools participating.  Two of these schools to whose students I spoke are St. Mary’s Catholic School of Omaha on March 24 and Fremont High School of Fremont, NE, on March 25.

St. Mary’s Catholic School of the Archdiocese of Omaha has approximately 200 students in pre-Kindergarten thru the 8th grade, and it has participated in the Week of Understanding every year.  I spoke today to their 6-8th graders, as arranged by St. Mary’s teacher Carol Sheridan.

My participation in Week of Understanding was arranged by Scott Littky, IHE’s Executive Director, and assisted by Kael Sagheer, IHE’s Education Coordinator.

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Arroyo High School, San Lorenzo, CA – March 16, 2021 via video

by George J Elbaum

Arroyo High School in San Lorenzo, across the bay from San Francisco, has a high diversity student body of approximately 1,800 students. It is organized into several “schools within a school,” and this is the 10th consecutive year that I have spoken to its 10th grade students studying the Holocaust.  This year was again via the internet and Zoom, with each student at their computer at home, because the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has still prevented in-school classes.  Looking at my web posts of pre-pandemic visits to Arroyo, with dozens & dozens of photos of students and remembering the brief but memorable chats with students & teachers, I look forward to a real rather than virtual visit to Arroyo next year.

This year’s virtual “visit” was again organized by teacher Jess Vaughn, as it was last April and several of my previous visits.  Participating now were approximately 80 students in 10th-grade English, who were reading Elie Wiesel’s Night and have studied background information about Hitler’s rise to power, anti-Semitism, and the Holocaust.  They’ve also viewed a video about Jewish partisan resistance fighters.

As last year, I was again impressed by the quality of the students’ questions: they were perceptive, sensitive, and mature.  I view students’ questions as a reflection not only of the students themselves but also of the teaching, so it was obvious that Jess Vaughn prepared her class very well. 

The event was arranged by Penny Savryn, Program Coordinator of the JFCS Holocaust Center.  Penny’s familiarity with my talk allowed her to “steer me back on track” seamlessly when I inattentively skipped over a couple parts of my usual talk.  Thank you, Penny!

Letters from Students

Ten days ago I received an email from teacher Jess Vaughn with letters from her students written after our March 16th presentation.  However, a very busy schedule kept me from reading these until yesterday, when together with my wife Mimi we read them all and excerpted those statements that truly resonated with us.  These excerpts are listed below.  Thank you very much for your letters, your thoughts, and your “thank you’s”.

  • Hearing your story really impacted me in a healing way, oddly. Hearing your story made me feel less alone because I know what it’s like to be moved from home to home. I am a foster child, and having to move and be relocated throughout childhood is a really hard thing to adapt to. And in a way, I was moved from each home for my safety, too.  And hopefully, me being able to relate on a small scale, will help you to feel a sense of healing, too. Your story is truly inspiring and motivates me to carry strength just like you!
  • I feel lucky that I was born in the time that war had ended and not go through the darkest time in life like you and your community.
  • Your story was very meaningful to me when you talked about the question if I would have taken a kid into my home just like how you were taken in, and I thought about it for a bit. It was amazing how kind those families were to take you in even though they knew having you in their household was risking their lives.
  •  Another part of your story that really impacted me was when you talked about only applying to MIT and getting in. You showed me that if I really worked hard for something that I wanted, it could be achieved.
  • What your mom did was really brave and smart. She was really courageous and smart and that really stood out to me.
  • Everything you said was truly inspiring and heartfelt. I’m really grateful for what you shared and hearing it firsthand.
  • My responsibility now to keep your story alive is to tell others who were not able to join the meeting what I learned from it and how things were back then. They will then realize how fortunate we are now.
  • When you were talking about your mother and your bond with her, it really touched me.  It makes me think about all the mothers that were separated from their children. It changed my view on life, I am incredibly lucky to be where I am. Thank you so much for sharing your story, I will never forget it.
  • Now, when I meet different people, I want to use your story as a guide to talk to people about what happened in the past. I think that it is important to keep this story because it is a part of our history and it is what made us who we are today.
  • The most inspiring phrase that I learned from you today was to stand with the people/things, not against them.
  • It’s people like you that inspire and motivate me to do something with my life. I get discouraged so easily over the small things, but listening to your story helped me realize that there are certain things I shouldn’t take for granted.
  • Unfortunately I have a sweet tooth, but that’s something we have in common.
  • Your story about your high school experience inspired me to raise my grades up and be able to do whatever I want, whether to be a mechanic or a real estate agent. I also learned that I can be doing badly in school and still do better if I study more.
  • I have faced many traumas in my life, my childhood, and I want to thank you for sharing your story because it showed the most important thing in the world is respect. Your story will forever stay with me and show what respect and kindness really are.
  • Your story has impacted me in so many ways. You often talked about luck and that is something you and I both can connect to because if it wasn’t for luck I wouldn’t be here either. We all have stories to tell and yours will forever be told through generations because it represents how kindness and respect can save lives.
  • One of the best things I have heard in my lifetime was by you: “The golden rule is a part of every religion.” I will pass this down forever as I remember the stories that you have passed on to me.
  • I like to learn about new things like your story. I also like to paint, write about my life, and cook.  I love them so much because my problems disappear and I only focus on these things.
  • Even through everything that happened, you moved on and that was inspiring to me. Now I know whatever I’m going through, I can move past it. Thank you for sharing your personal life.
  • You taught me that I should never let a bad event affect the way I am today and how I should never dwell in the past.
  • Your stories had a major impact on me because I can visualize how other people would feel who were tortured or suffered during Holocaust.
  • Something that really stuck out to me while listening to your story was the fact that this was all happening without your consciousness. Seeing it from your perspective like growing up thinking you’re just another Polish child and just being moved from house to house with no particular reason was so fascinating to me.
  • I love that you strive for positivity which is definitely something I will keep in mind for my present and my future.
  • When hearing your story all I could really think about is how hard it must have been to be a little boy and have everything taken from you almost in an instant and it is truly wonderful that you made it through that difficult time with no true aftereffects.
  • Thank you for allowing all of us to have this experience first-hand. The danger is never represented accurately through the textbooks we are given.  Hearing the story of your family gave me courage.
  • Hearing how close you were to death as a kid, hearing of the suffering you were too young to understand was saddening, but as someone who grew up sheltered, it gives me inspiration to think that even so young you were so strong.
  • Something that stuck out to me was the many Polish families that decided to help you. Although they knew how much trouble it would get them into, they still cared for you as they knew it was the right thing to do. It shows that even during terrible times, there are still people who stick to their morals and are there to help.
  • It is very inspiring how you still have a great attitude towards the world despite everything you went through. I have viewed life in a more positive way and am motivated to never give up.
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Mercer Island High School, Mercer Island, WA – March 3, 2021 via video

by George J Elbaum

Mercer Island High School (MIHS) has a total enrollment of 1521 students including Crest Learning Center, an alternative program largely focused on community-based learning in smaller classes.  US News Best Schools ranks MIHS as #8 in Washington and #527 in its National Rankings based on its students’ impressive performance: Mathematics Proficiency 86% vs. 40% state average, Reading Proficiency 95% vs. 70% state average, and College Readiness Index Rank #11 in WA.  MIHS enrollment’s demographics are: White 70%Asian 20%Hispanic 4%, all other 6%; and 3% of students are economically disadvantaged.

Today’s MIHS program follows last week’s (2-24-2021), which involved student-organized presentations by Holocaust speakers, most of them Holocaust survivors, for small groups of its 9th and 10th graders.  Both last week and today, these presentations were held during the school’s supplemental morning “Islander Hour” outside of standard class time.  While many of the students had some background education in the Holocaust, the school’s overarching goal was to give the underclassmen an experience that will help them understand why the Holocaust is important to teach, and why it is not a topic for jokes.  By tasking students to organize the events, MIHS gave the students valuable experience that will undoubtedly be useful in their adult careers, and that included resolving the technical difficulties that were encountered in starting the events.  I want to commend students Bella Hartman, supported by Samantha Wampold, in managing the difficulties unflappably and relying on teachers John Stafford, Ed Puchalla, and Creighton Laughary for support when it became necessary.   

My presentation to approximately 25 10th grade students was arranged by Julia Thompson, Education Program Manager of the Holocaust Center for Humanity.

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Mercer Island High School, Mercer Island, WA – February 24, 2021 via video

by George J Elbaum

Mercer Island High School (MIHS) has a total enrollment of 1521 students including Crest Learning Center, an alternative program largely focused on community-based learning in smaller classes.  US News Best Schools ranks MIHS as #8 in Washington and #527 in its National Rankings based on its students’ impressive performance: Mathematics Proficiency 86% vs. 40% state average, Reading Proficiency 95% vs. 70% state average, and College Readiness Index Rank #11 in WA.  MIHS enrollment’s demographics are: White 70%, Asian 20%, Hispanic 4%, all other 6%; and 3% of students are economically disadvantaged.

Today MIHS hosted a student-organized series of Holocaust speakers, most of them Holocaust survivors, for small groups of its 9th and 10th graders, and their presentations were held during the school’s supplemental morning “Islander Hour” outside of standard class time.  While many of the students had some background education in the Holocaust, the school’s overarching goal was to give the underclassmen an experience that will help them understand why the Holocaust is important to teach, and why it is not a topic for jokes.  My presentation to approximately 30 10th grade students was arranged by Julia Thompson, Education Program Manager of the Holocaust Center for Humanity.

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Irvington High School, Fremont, CA – February 19, 2021 via video

by George J Elbaum

Irvington High School has an enrollment of 2294 students and Great School overall rating of 8/10 and 10/10 in Academics based on its students’ test scores: Math proficiency of 73% vs. CA State average of 40% and English proficiency of 75% vs. CA State avg of 51%.  College readiness rating is therefore 84% vs CA avg of 64%.  Irvington’s demographics are 71% Asian, 11% White, 9% Hispanic, 5% Filipino and 4% all others.  Its students learning English are 6% and 17% are from low-income families.  Because Irvington is a Service-Learning school, embedded in its coursework is the mandate that students apply what they have learned in the form of service to the community.  The school thus requires its students a minimum of 40 hours of service learning and community service to graduate.

Irvington has an admirable emphasis on social issues and how to advocate for change built into its curriculum in that all students must complete 3 special benchmark projects: one at the 9th grade level called Change Project, one at the 10th grade level called World Issues Project, and one at the 12th grade level called QUEST.  The benchmarks are long-term projects that allow students to demonstrate progress toward or mastery of the four School-Wide Outcomes: Communication, Critical Thinking, Personal Responsibility, and Social Responsibility.  Benchmarks are intended to be consistently evaluated, real life assessment projects which provide students, parents, and teachers information about student achievement across a range of important lifelong learning skills.

9th graders complete a Change project in which they work in teams of three to four to make a positive change regarding an environmental problem that they identify in the local community. During this 6-month service project they volunteer at a local organization, write 3 drafts of a research report, and create a PowerPoint presentation to present near the end of the school year to their peers and teachers.

10th graders undertake a World Issues project in which student teams of four are assigned a global issue. After covering an issue’s background as a team, students complete the rest of the project individually. The first half of the year is devoted to understanding and describing the issue, and the second half is proposing ways to fix the problem. Each student must research the issue, write two papers on their topic, and participate in two discussions on the assigned topic. These topics can be lack of access to clean water, refugee crises, terrorism, child labor, climate change, infectious diseases, and inequality for women.

12th graders undertake QUEST, a five-component project designed and completed by all Irvington seniors to graduate.  The student starts with a “Question” associated with “providing benefits to the community.” Through “Understanding,” an answer to the Question develops through research, reading, writing, and hands-on activities. Students must then find a professional to act as their consultant and guide them through their experience.  Each student and his or her consultant then create an “Experience” plan addressing the Question. Through “Service,” the student designs and implements an activity to share his or her new knowledge with the greater community such that it serves a real need.  Students document their findings throughout the year, presenting their Question with background information, research, and hands-on experience on their QUEST. Finally, at the “Testimony,” the student presents his or her entire QUEST experience to a panel consisting of staff, parents and experienced community members.

My presentation was to 50+ 10th grade students who reading Elie Wiesel’s Night, and will next study the history of the Holocaust in their world history classes.  Today’s session was arranged and organized by Cheryl Cook-Kallio and supported by Nicole Marsella-Jensen, both long time teachers at Irvington.  Cheryl and I were recently connected by a mutual friend, Jack Weinstein, who had introduced me to many schools in the East Bay before retiring as the director of Bay Area’s chapter of Facing History and Ourselves.

Notes from students

The week after my Zoom talk at Irvington High School I received from teacher Cheryl Cook-Kallio containing notes from a couple dozen students who attended my talk.  As has been our custom for years, after dinner my wife Mimi read aloud each of the notes and we highlighted the thoughtful and sensitive  statements that resonated with us, which are shown below.   Thank you!

  • What I find inspirational is how after going through the darkest of days, you survived and valued your life to the fullest
  • Your story helps me see what people in hiding had to go through and how lucky you must have been to live. Overall thanks to you I can understand the holocaust much better. This is one for the books.
  • When you talked about your admission into MIT it was very inspirational. MIT has always been one of my dream schools and hearing your story gave me reassurance that hard work truly does pay off.
  • I was very moved by how you were able to overcome the experiences during the time and live to be able to tell your story even now, as some people wouldn’t be able to share their story for their whole lifetime.
  • It also caught my attention when you talked about your goal and the career you wanted to take because it’s very inspirational how you worked hard on your grades and was able to go to the school you wanted to go to.
  • I think it was so important for you to speak with our generation because hopefully knowledge like this will stop history from repeating itself.
  • Another thing that surprised me was the fact that you were silent for over 65 years. If you had continued to stay silent, we would have never been able to hear your story. For that, I thank you, as without your story we wouldn’t know what people (like your mother) did just to keep their loved ones safe and away from the Holocaust’s concentration camps. 
  • Your story motivated me to not take anything for granted, whether it is a bowl of soup or a roof upon my head.
  • I found it interesting when you described how your mother, an attorney, was clever and changed her appearance, changed your and her names, and found safe refuge for you during the Holocaust. This is what my family would call “street smart”. 
  • I especially enjoyed how just a smile at a ss guard set you free and how you could have had a much different experience just from a few small actions.
  • You said there were a lot of families you went into and I really liked this part because it let me know that even if there is a lot of bad, there will always be good. I liked this also because it lets me know that sometimes ignorance is bliss, because of the time you were just eating and did not know who was coming or what was going on, so you did not feel too much pressure. 
  • It made me get a new perspective on life that I should be more grateful for the things I have and my own life, because people like you Mr. Elbaum had a harsh time growing up, and I’m blessed I don’t have to go through the same things.
  • I understand that it can be hard to share personal stories, but your words will stick with every single person you tell it to.
  • I learned a different perspective than usual, and it made me really happy because it had a happy ending. Usually when we hear stories around the holocaust we tend to think of travesty and things the mind cannot even imagine. It was really nice to hear a different story and I am very glad that you slowly opened up to letting the world know about your journey!

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JFCS Holocaust Center, San Francisco, CA, The Next Chapter – February 16, 2021 via video

by George J Elbaum

Jewish Family and Children’s Services (JFCS) is a San Francisco Bay Area social services organization whose mission statement is “Serving individuals and families of all faiths and backgrounds, guided by the Jewish value of caring for those in our community most in need.” As such, JFCS carries a special responsibility within the Jewish community for reaching out to children, the aged, those with special needs, and for the resettlement and acculturation of refugees and immigrants.

Among its many services, the JFCS provides the facilities and educational programs on the Holocaust for visiting teachers, adults, and student groups.  My presentation today was to students participating in JFCS’s Next Chapter program, as I’ve done in past years.  The Next Chapter is an introduction to the history of the Holocaust for 9th through 12th graders, in which they can develop a connection with Holocaust survivors.  Because of the current pandemic, students meet via Zoom every 1 – 2 weeks from December through May and hear from different speakers through the course of the program.  By learning to recognize the value in others’ stories and experiences, students learn to appreciate their own story and identity, as well as gain moral courage and a sense of social responsibility.   Students thus build a special community of social responsibility and genocide awareness, and may be awarded up to 20 – 30 hours of community service.

My talk was arranged by Penny Savryn, JFCS Holocaust Center’s Program Coordinator, and managed by Yedida Kanfer, Director of Community Education, who introduced me to the audience and conducted the Q&A session. To add some visual interest to the text, I had asked Yedida to take a screen shot of the audience as shown on Zoom in a matrix of thumbnail photos as I’ve done in my Zoom presentations.  However, Yedida had a surprise for me: after thanking me for the talk and telling the audience that she would be taking their photo while they applauded, she asked them to unmute their microphones so I could actually hear the applause!   First-time ever by Zoom – thank you, Yedida!

Notes from students

After my Zoom talk with the JFCS Next Chapter students I received from Yedida Kanfer the “thank you” notes from the couple dozen students who attended it.  As has been a custom for years, after dinner my wife Mimi read aloud each note, and we highlighted the thoughtful statements that particularly resonated with us, and these are shown below.  

  • I encourage you to continue telling your story so others can be inspired by your story and learn to never give up if you work hard and have a goal.
  • Your story reminded me how important it is to stand up for those who cannot stand up for themselves
  • Your standing up to that anti-Semitic boy back in Poland shows how principled you were (and still are) at such a young age.
  • It really stuck with me how you repeated the message of being for things, and not against things. This is a beautiful way in which we can view the world in a positive light. Also it is something I really needed to hear.
  • It brings me an immense amount of hope to meet people so committed to educating the next generation about the past. May we take your life and your words as a guiding example.
  • Your words further exhibited to me how important it is to be resilient and stand up what is right.
  • You reminded me that even when facing hardships, it is important to push through and continue with one’s goal, as it will pay off in the end. It was a reminder that I needed.
  • I really liked how you talked about the story with your counselor, and how you weren’t affected by his discouragement, but instead you worked even harder to chase your dreams. Thank you so much!
  • You told us to “be for things, not against things,” which is great advice, especially for teenagers like me. Please continue to teach others.
  • I appreciated the fact that you answered questions with a lot of depth. I learned so much from hearing you speak.
  • It was incredible to hear about all the details you remember, and your strength and perseverance are inspiring
  • It was very moving hearing you recount the pieces and details of your life and how you were so eager to share with us.
  • I really appreciate your thoughts and the questions you asked us. It made me really reflect on the way I view things.
  • I want to especially thank you for the advice and inspiration that you gave me.
  • I deeply admire you as a person and as a testament to human resilience and character.
  • Your harrowing account made me appreciate the comfortable life I have and reflect on brutality of the Holocaust.
  • Thank you for choosing to spend your time on an increasingly important mission, informing the younger generation of the extent to which systematic persecution and separation can reach.
  • Your words of wisdom remind me to never be a bystander in situations of oppression.
  • I’m very grateful that you are sharing your story with everyone because there is so much anti-Semitism and people are starting to forget about the Holocaust.
  • You are the prime example of perseverance and hope during an extremely difficult time.
  • I am grateful to you for sharing your wisdom with us and reminding me to never stand by when people are being hurt and oppressed.

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